Fatemeh Kaviani, Zeinab Tavakol, Hamid Salehiniya

Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Year: 2020

Abstract :

Background: Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most important common health problems in women. Improving temperament could decrease painful menstruation by decreasing menstrual blood flow. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between warm and cold temperament and dysmenorrhea among Iranian female students.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study which was conducted on 112 nursing and midwifery female students. The data were obtained by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire contained questions about the general characteristics of the participants, obstetrical information and menstruation pattern (including bleeding severity) and pain ruler. Finally, the  data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using mean, standard deviation) and chi-square. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The mean age of participants was 20.26 ± 0.91 and the average May be number of consumed pads was 3.25 ± 1.42. Pain had been started less than one year after the onset of the first menstruation (46.4% of participants), 1 to 3 years after onset of menstruation (17.9%), and more than three years after onset of menstruation (35.7%). Also, the results of this study revealed a significant relationship between pain severity and temperament, in addition, severe dysmenorrhea was seen in 66.7% of people with cold temperament (p = 0.001)

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the pain is more observable in cold temperament group, therefore we can empower the gynecologists, midwives and nurses in this field by practical training for them and accordingly contribute to reduce the use of chemical drugs by women with primary dysmenorrhea as well as increasing their efficacy in daily activities and improving their quality of life and their physical and mental health.


Painful Menstruation, Cold Temperament, Warm temperament, Iran

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