Marjan Akhtari, Reihaneh Moeini, Morteza Mojahedi, Narjes Gorji

Journal: Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine

Year: 2020


Introduction: Mizaj or temperament is a main concept in Persian Medicine (PM), which the process of diagnosis, treatment and preventive prescriptions are developed based on it. In this study, the articles written on the concept of Mizaj were reviewed.

Method: Credited electronic resources, including Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and web-of-science were searched using keywords Temperament, Mizaj, Mizadj, Midzaj and Mezaj (with the concept of Mizaj in Persian and/or Greek medicine). Search results were limited to English articles, published in 1995–2017. The articles in which temperament had the psychoanalytic aspect or was based on Ayurveda or Chinese/Korean medicine were removed. A team of four PM experts evaluated the method and the results.

Results: Among the total of 32 articles were published in this field, 14 were review articles, 2 were on animal subject, 14 were on human subject and 2 were surveys for designing questionnaire for people’s Mizaj assessment. Most of review studies were just new versions of ancient Persian texts translated into English and the in novations on the subject were few. Studies on animal subject and developing questionnaires were also limited. In some human studies, use of standard questionnaires and homogenous methodology in Mizaj assessment was not considered.

Conclusions: It seems that studies on temperaments have increased in the past few years but are still at the forefront. In human studies a homogenous method for evaluating temperament has not been used and some of them failed to address the main concept of Mizaj in PM. Therefore, it is necessary to use the original category of Mizaj and to design standard method.


Individualized medicine, Integrative Medicine, Mizaj, Persian Medicine, Temperament

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