History of Medicine is a branch of the history of science that assesses the background of the emergence, development and transformation of medical knowledge. in other words, medical history, the study of the prevention and treatment of diseases from prehistoric and ancient times to the 21st century. Concepts of health, sickness, and death changed over the centuries among the many different cultures and the medicine practiced by trained professionals changed the approach to diseases as well as the treatment perspectives. To understand how modern medicine got to where it is now and to make plans for the future, it is important to carefully look at the past and understand its history.
History of Medicine in early human society
The art of tending to the sick is as old as humanity itself. The history of medicine is a fascinating account of the human battle against illness. The early history of medical practice can be learned and interpreted from bony remains, old drawings and paintings, and surgical tools used by our ancestors. Religion, magic, and rituals were the basis of medical practice in early human society. Medicine was practiced by witches who used herbs, vegetables, and remedy preparations accompanied by rituals and dances. The ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamian, Indian, Egypt, Greek and Persian, probably knew about the physiology, and anatomy of the human body in surprising detail, and their art of tending the sick remains proof of their knowledge. Because the content uploaded on our site is from unani and persian medicine, more information about these medical systems is stated below.
Unani is the ancient Greek system of medicine that evolved throughout the ancient world and which was fostered in the Islamic realms, based on ancient logic and timeless rules encapsulating a cosmological view of human health and the universe. Generations of Muslim scholars acquired and developed Greek treatises and commentaries on medicine and science in general, critically examining, collating, revising and enriching the knowledge of ancient Greek, Persian, Egyptian and Indian science during what is known as the Golden Age of Islam.
The history of medicine in Persia (Iran) dates back thousands of years. This area, from the beginning of history until 637 AD when Muslim Arabs conquered Persia and the Sassanid dynasty was overthrown, was known as Ancient Persia. Zoroastrianism was the official religion of Persians for at least the last 1000 years of that period. Three main Persian empires in ancient times were the Achaemenid (550–330 BC), Parthian (247 BC–224 AD), and Sassanid (224–637 AD) dynasties. Although their well-organized civilization and global empires are well-known, unfortunately, the existing information about their medical sciences is minimal, because most of their scientific documents were destroyed in invasions by neighboring rulers, such as Alexander of Macedonia and leaders of the Arab Empire. This lack of knowledge is also due to the weakness of current investigations. After 637 AD when Muslim Arabs conquered Persia and the Sassanid dynasty was overthrown in Islamic empire Persian physicians such as Avicenna [12–16], Rhazes [17,18], Haly Abbas , and Akhawayni and other Persian scientists promoted medicine knowledge.